Treatment for Mild short bowel syndrome involves eating small, frequent meals; drinking fluid; taking nutritional supplements; and using medications to treat diarrhoea. Special diet. A health care provider can recommend a specific diet plan for the patient that may include small, frequent feedings avoiding foods that can cause diarrhoea, such as foods high in sugar, protein, and fibre avoiding high-fat foods
Treatment for Moderate short bowel syndrome is similar to that for mild short bowel syndrome, with the addition of parenteral nutrition as needed.
Treatment for Severe short bowel syndrome involves use of parenteral nutrition and oral rehydration solutions. Patients may receive enteral nutrition or continue normal eating, even though most of the nutrients are not absorbed.
Both enteral nutrition and normal eating stimulate the remaining intestine to work better and may allow patients to discontinue parenteral nutrition. Some patients with severe short bowel syndrome require parenteral nutrition indefinitely or may require an intestinal transplant.
Parenteral Nutrition: This treatment delivers fluids, electrolytes, and liquid vitamins and minerals into the bloodstream through an intravenous (IV) tube—a tube placed into a vein.
Enteral nutrition: This treatment delivers liquid food to the stomach or small intestine through a feeding tube—a small, soft, plastic tube placed through the nose or mouth into the stomach.
Vitamin and mineral supplements: A person may need to take vitamin and mineral supplements during or after parenteral or enteral nutrition.
Medications: A health care provider may prescribe medications to treat short bowel syndrome, including:
Antibiotics to prevent bacterial overgrowth
H2 blockers to treat too much gastric acid secretion
Proton pump inhibitors to treat too much gastric acid secretion
Choleretic agents to improve bile flow and prevent liver disease
Bile-salt binders to decrease diarrhoea
Anti-secretin agents to reduce gastric acid in the intestine
Hypomotility agents to increase the time it takes food to travel through the intestines, leading to increased nutrient absorption
Growth hormones to improve intestinal absorption
Teduglutide to improve intestinal absorption
Surgery: The aim of surgery is to increase the small intestine's ability to absorb nutrients. Approximately half of the patients with short bowel syndrome need surgery to prevent blockage and preserve the length of the small intestine. To remove any Narrowing, dilated segment of the small intestine that may have occurred. Two of the following procedures maybe considered.
Bianchi procedure: The surgeon divides the bowel in half and sews one end to the other. The goal is to convert the intestine from one short tube with a large diameter to a longer tube with a smaller diameter. This allows more time for food to travel and be absorbed into the body.
Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure (STEP). The surgeon divides the bowel and staples it in a zigzag pattern. The accordion-like pattern allows food to spend more time in the intestine where it can be absorbed naturally.
The health care provider will recommend treatment for short bowel syndrome based on a patient's nutritional needs.